Thursday, March 12, 2020
Biological Psychology Core assumptions of the biopsychological approach The core assumption of a biopsychological approach is the fact that illness and health come as a result of a given interplay. In this case it should be known that this interplay revolves around factors like psychological, social and even biological aspects. Most notably, there is always an initiative and attempt to understand the aspect of psychopathology that is done through proper examining.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Biological Psychology specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is the examining of different interactive influences that play a big role in biology and learning. In addition, cognitive processes are also examined to understand psychopathology in a better way. As far as this core assumption is concerned, there might be an example where an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s style of thinking makes him vulnerable to a given disorder (Pinel, 2002, p. 23). Historical di sciplines that converge to create biological psychology Closely tied roots of biology and philosophy have always converged to create biological psychology. These are historical disciplines that have been in existence for some time thereby their convergence creates a new discipline. It should be known that the roots of psychology are ancient but they have always been recreated by the emergence of philosophy and physiology that are new disciplines. In the process, there has been a special role of biological psychology that as emerged as a result of these new discipline (Pinel, 2002, p. 47). Social and philosophical disciplines have also converged with biology to create this new disincline in one way or the other. Earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior The earliest examples can be traced from the way human behavior functions. There was some research on the human brain structure to try and understand the principles of evolutionary biology. Another example is whe re people could ask how prescribed drugs could be able to treat different behavioral effects. There are other earlier methods that could be used to understand how the brain works by proper analysis to assert whether some behavior can be associated with different traits(Pinel, 2002, p. 78). Cross cultural utilization of biological bases of different behavior is another earlier approach that was used to study behavior in one way or the other. Modern careers that have resulted from studying biological psychology There are different careers that have emerged as a result of studying biological psychology. Careers in neuroscience have emerged and this where people have been able to study the nervous system as time goes by. Counseling psychology has also emerged as a career because there are individuals who study psychology with an aim of being counselors to different people (Pinel, 2002, p. 125).Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your fi rst paper with 15% OFF Learn More There has also been an emergence of psychologists who have been able to practice because biological psychology is a wide field. Psychologists have always been academicians or professionals in the field of biological psychology. Researchers have emerged in biological psychology because there are certain aspects that come about as time goes by. How biological psychology is viewed by other professionals Professionals in psychology today lay more emphasis on different behavioral perspectives that have been enhanced by biological psychology. This means that they view biological psychology in a positive way because it has assisted in various areas. In this case, biological psychology has been appreciated because it is able to look at how environmental variables affect behavior. As a matter of fact, professionals in psychology have been able to team up with others who specialize in biological psychology to enhance research with an aim of co ming with new solutions to different problems (Pinel, 2002, p. 63). This means that biological psychology is a core discipline that has been embraced by these professionals for long term sustainability. Reference List Pinel, J. (2010). Biopsychology. New York: Prentice Hall.
Monday, February 24, 2020
Health Care Reform - Essay Example This took place after fruitless attempts by several Democratic presidents for decades, which made the moment very significant in the long legislative contest.Ã This Health Care Reform legislation is expected to cover around thirty million Americans who do not have access to it. It requires Americans to make sure that they have health insurance cover and for low and middle-income persons, it would subsidize private coverage. Furthermore, it would include approximately sixteen million more Americans to the Medicaid rolls. As Wolfe (2010) notes, the Health care Reform legislation is of great significant to children and young adults, as regards to health care access and cover. To start with, beginning 2010, new private plans must offer preventive care free of charge. It does not permit them to charge deductibles or co-payments for preventive services. This is also the case for Medicare starting from 1 January 2011. It therefore places more children at an advantage of getting access to well-child health checks for earlier detection of potential health problems.
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Haydn in Public and Private - Essay Example HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s symphonies were composed and performed for a wide variety of audiences. In the View of Simon McVeigh, the musical master composed his music not only for the ruling class, but also for the common citizens. According to his publication, Concert Life in London from Mozart to Haydn, Simon reiterates that the symphony of Haydn and other composers of the time were meant for the ruling class like the Prince of Wales (Simon, 1997). In addition, the symphonies were composed and designed to appeal to young, unruly men who would disrupt concerts with commentating on the performances as artists performed. He also targeted young, single ladies looking for respectable suitors. Haydn composed most of his symphonies during his stay at Court Morzin (Piero & Richard, 1999). The compositions were meant to further his career as a freelance musician. He composed most of his symphonies, including Symphony no. 94 and Emperor Quartet in 1761 after he gained a reliable job as vice Kapellmeiste r in Esterhazy family among the wealthy Hungarian nobility. Music in the Eighteenth Century by John Rice details the situations in which HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s String Quartet movement might have been heard and played during HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s days. According to JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s publication, all ranks of the society of the time were fond of music and most people perfectly understood the role and science of music. Although other lighter string and not-string quartets were enjoyed by more people, HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s string quartet was cherished by aristocrats and the musicians themselves. HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s String Quartet entertained people in small, private gatherings in taverns and ballroom carnival orchestras (John, 1989). The string quartet played a huge role in entertaining a small audience of HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s music during MozartÃ¢â¬â¢s concerts. In addition, a few music lovers spent their times in private apartments and palaces entertaining themselves with HaydnÃ¢â¬â¢s String Quartet. Furthermore, the Viennese music
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Rise of the Bureaucratic State Essay The bureaucracy has been constantly growing since its beginning. At the end of the Federalist period, only 3,000 civilian officials were appointed; then in 1925 about half a million were employees in the bureaucracy. However, the size of the bureaucracy is completely insignificant. What matters is the amount of power that can be exercised by the members of the bureaucratic agencies. The author, James Q. Wilson, provides an example that in 1971, the federal government provided fifty four million dollars to various social security programs, however, the Social Security Administration only employed 73,000 people at the time. The increases in the size of the bureaucratic agencies affect the executive branch of the government. For example, from 1816 to 1861, the employment in the executive branch increased from 4,837 to 36,672. However, eighty six percent of this growth was the result of additions to the postal service. After 1861, many new departments were formed relating to agriculture, labor and commerce, which have led to a clientelisitc (client oriented) bureaucracy. In addition, the government began to formally give bureaucratic recognition to the many peculiar interests in the economy. The author concludes that the bureaucratic clentelism becomes self-perpetuating in the absence of some crisis or scandal. In addition, the separation of powers makes it difficult to permit the enactment of a new program or the creation of a new agency. After reading this article, I was surprised that some agencies associated with agriculture control the flow of billions of dollars in expenditures and loans. Furthermore, local committees of farmers, private farm organizations dominate policy making in some areas.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Growth of Marietta in The Bean Trees Barbara Kingsolver, in the novel The Bean Trees, portrays the story of a young woman, Marietta Greer, learning about love, responsibility, friendship and the human condition. All of us can relate to the struggles of every day life; however, it is when we must deal with issues that we would rather run from that show our true character. Sooner or later, we all have to confront issues that life bestows on us. Ã Marietta embarks on her journey west in a 1955 Volkswagen with a pledge to get away from Kentucky. She fulfills a promise she has made when she changes her name to "Taylor" after passing through a town named Taylorville. While traveling in Oklahoma, she acquires a three year old she names "Turtle." It is when Taylor's car breaks down in Tucson that she and Turtle begin their new life together. Through their travels, they meet up with people who draw them in and provide love and support. Their new friends, Lou Ann, who becomes their roommate, and Mattie, Taylor's new boss, convince Taylor to return to Oklahoma to find Turtle...
Monday, January 13, 2020
It seems to be quite easy to jump on the Ã¢â¬Ëbank-wagonÃ¢â¬â¢ and blame investment bankers for the current global economical downturn. The current downturn in question is one which is generally accepted by the financial industry to have started in 2007, and was officially dated December 2007 by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).The question is, whether this industry and its bankers are the root cause, and if so, could they have avoided it? The word Ã¢â¬ËbankersÃ¢â¬â¢ can imply different meanings to different people, so to clarify, when I use the word Ã¢â¬ËbankersÃ¢â¬â¢ in this text, I am referring to investment bankers. The first article I analysed is by Jonathan Wang, Ph.D., and entitled Ã¢â¬ËReal Causes For US Financial Meltdown and Global RecessionÃ¢â¬â¢ (March 2009). Wang is the President of Amlink, a multi-million dollar company which provides links in trade and politics between China and the United States of America (USA). He is based in Michigan, USA. I will be comparing it to John GapperÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËPromises that proved ultimately emptyÃ¢â¬â¢ (January 9th 2012). Gapper is the assistant editor and chief business commentator for the Financial Times newspaper and website. He is based in New York, USA. Wang has an opinion that the bankers are unaccountable as the blame is with the governments whereas Gapper has an antipodal view in line with the assessment Wang gave, stating Ã¢â¬Ëit was within banks where the crisis emerged and where its heart still liesÃ¢â¬â¢. Wang seems to have a widespread knowledge of many fields. He has a Ph.D in geosciences from the University of Michigan. Geosciences have no relevance to economist articles on the banking industry but this Ph.D allowed him the expertise to start Amlink a year later, as he originally focused on importing and exporting high quality marble between US and China. He increased his links with the two countries by giving financial & trade advice (business consulting), intervening in politics, research & development, manufacturing and IT services. This how we gained his expertise. This expertise of 19 years strengthens his perspective as he has gained the relevant knowledge and skills to talk about this topic with credibility. However, his trade is between (mainly) US and China thus may so it is questionable to whether his experience can be applied to Europe, where many economies collapsed, such as Greece. Gapper currently works for the Financial Times (FT) since 1987, an international daily broadsheet newspaper and website, available in 24 countries. They have a daily readership of 2.1 million and 5.7 million online subscribers. His position is associate editor and chief business commentator. He was trained by the Mirror Group and worked for the Daily Mirror, Daily Mail & Daily Telegraph newspapers in the United Kingdom. Additionally, he has worked as columnist for the BBC, UK & Worldwide. His resume also lists New York Magazine, CNBC & CNN among his employers. This striking list of employers may show, at first glance, that he is not politically bias possibly leading him to be known as a highly reputable columnist. the Conservative Party, one that is centre-right; The Daily Mail is also a Conservative supporter; and However, his political stance may be more Conservative as the FT is a public supporter of the Daily Telegraph has been nicknamed the Ã¢â¬ËTorygraphÃ¢â¬â¢ due to its support of the Conservative party. He has previously worked for politically independent media but his main contract of employment has been with FT since 1987. This political bias may narrow his perspective. Additionally, in 2011, he won four awards in multiple countries. In the United States he was awarded the Best Columnist Citation by the Society of American Business Editors & Writers; and in the UK he was award with the Best Business Columnist at the Comment Awards. He also has a degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics from Oxford University. Both articles have strengths and weaknesses, and it is better to analyse these sections rather than attacking the author (ad hominem). The chain of argument in both articles has been constructed quite rigidly, and allows the statements made by the respective authors to reach their necessary conclusions. Wang concludes that increasing tax on the top income groups becomes necessary as the government must focus on stabilization rather than expansion. His main reasoning for this is Ã¢â¬Ëwhen the share of total income going to [the] top 10% reached 50%, the capital market crashed in the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢. He also has an intermediate conclusion that the Ã¢â¬ËGovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s improper interventions in the capital market before both episodes of crisis had accelerated the extreme inequalities and ultimately intensified the crisis.Ã¢â¬â¢ Wang reasons that Ã¢â¬ËIt is the extreme inequality that has resulted in the great depression in 1929 and again caused the global recession todayÃ¢â¬â¢. This is fallacy of the single cause as the recession in 1929 has three are three general theories on what caused the 1929 depression, Keynesian, Monetarist & Austrian. None of these theories are based on inequality. The Monetarist view blamed the Federal Reserve for ignoring the importance of money, who themselves agreed with this and apologised on the 8th of November 2002 via Chairman Ben Bernanke. It may be that the recession is part of the business cycle, and happens quite frequently whereas a depression is a sustained, long term economical downturn. The NBER stated that Ã¢â¬ËThe expansion [from November 2001 onwards] lasted 73 monthsÃ¢â¬â¢ which then strengthens WangÃ¢â¬â¢s reason that Ã¢â¬Ëtwo major economic expansions led to two episodes of extreme inequalities in the United States. Both ended in severe economic depression.Ã¢â¬â¢ Elizabeth Allgoewer (2002) states that this was the cause of the Great Depression, however the true cause is still being debated by economists, with around a dozen other heterodox economical theories such as non-debt inflation or population dynamics. His reasoning here needs further clarification or research before this can be fully taken as evidence. Gapper states that Ã¢â¬Ëdriven by the rise of derivatives, the loosening of regulation and capital standards, and a hubristic belief that they had somehow broken their old habit of losing billions of dollars in downturnsÃ¢â¬â¢. He does not strengthen this with any evidence on the Ã¢â¬Ëloosening of regulationÃ¢â¬â¢ etc., and deserted his statement. He also quotes credible sources such as Ranu Dayal, senior partner at the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading advisor on business structure, the Boston Consulting Group Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËThere is a deep question of legitimacy that banks need to face up toÃ¢â¬â¢. However one of his sources is credited as being a Professor but in fact he is only an Associate Professor, a position which still has very high credibility, but of less than the one quoted by Gapper. Also, Gapper does not give any conflicting perspective, the only views you read are the ones that agree with him. This weakens his argument as he has not considered alternative perspectives. After analysing both articles, my view is still similar to Gapper and I already thought that it was fair to blame investment bankers for the 2007 downturn. Whilst I note that they dealt with a lot of money and it was not handled in a correct manner by anybody who had access to it (including the Federal Reserve), I also can see where WangÃ¢â¬Ës concept bases its format. His perspective of social inequalities is only US based but I can understand his assumptions that expansion was high and the consequence of this led to social inequalities. This has happened elsewhere, such as during the Chinese Mao era of 1949-1976, in particular during the Great Leap Forward (1958-61). GapperÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective has persuaded me that he is of more expertise than Wang as he is so influential in finance media. His analysis was concise and constructive. He quoted many important figures in his article including an executive director of the Bank of England; Chairman of the Financial Services Authority; and a Professor of Entrepreneurship at MIT Sloan school. His arguments are quite strong however he does go a stage of a circular argument where he should be concluding his article. His evidence did strengthen my perspective however WangÃ¢â¬â¢s comments led me to read more into financial theories, especially of those surrounding the 1929 Great Depression. He managed to intrigue me into the history of the financial world and I do believe that 1929 and 2007 are very similar in the cause, but the cause is the banking industry, not the housing market. Wang has only commented on the United States but his views may apply worldwide however his lack of evidence weakens his perspective as it is too narrow. My final conclusion is that investment bankers were the major, not the only, cause of the global downturn which started in 2007, and we have to share the blame for the current economical state
Sunday, January 5, 2020
In Stanley MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Perils of DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ , an experiment was conducted to test an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s obedience from authority when conflicting with morally incorrect orders. Following the conclusion of World War Two, MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s essay was published in HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Magazine, which appeals to a national audience and yields an array of content from different contextual backgrounds. As Milgram reports the results of his experiment, he provides descriptive details of many of the subjects and their behaviors when conflicted with following orders that hurt another individual. Among other rhetorical elements in his essay, Milgram utilizes the format of his writing in order to fully convey his evidence in a compelling manner to the reader. MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the experimentÃ¢â¬â¢s composition compels the reader to analyze every detail in the essay due to the common language portrayed in the ini tial paragraphs. As the experiment progresses, Milgram reports his findings in a unique matter which supports the structure of his research. MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational approach to the narration of his essay uses conversational elements to supplement the clarity of his observations. By utilizing direct conversation rather than summaries, Milgram allows the reader to immerse themselves into the experiment. The reader may feel like he or she is directly in the room of the ongoing experiment because of the dialogues provided by several of the subjects. Milgram provides dialogic elements rather than summaries in order to expand his audience from the scientific world to ordinary people who may not possess scientific knowledge. He did so in order to report to the general audience of the American population in HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Magazine, which focuses on common language rather than scientific dialogue. Another element of MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s essay that allows for a focused, yet simplistic structure is the utilization of subheadings throughout the course of the analysis. Milgram uses subheadings such as Ã¢â¬Å"peculiar reactionsÃ¢â ¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the etiquette of submissionÃ¢â¬ to continually engage the reader to progress in the essay. By sectioning each topic from the next, Milgram guidesShow MoreRelatedAuthority And Authority1751 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesnot remain intact. Obedience to authority is a topic that is very open ended, leaving many to question what the effects of authority are, if people always have the inclination to obey the authority figure, and what the effects of obedience and disobedience are and how they relate. We see examples of authority everywhere. The Bible, wars, and modern society all have countless instances of both good and bad leaders and authority figures. Nicole Biggart and Gary Hamilton talk about how for authorityRead MoreThe Perils Of Obedience By Milgram And The Stanford Prison Experiment1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof obedience. Two prestigious psychologists, Stanley Milgram and Philip G. Zimbardo, conducted practical obedience experiments with astonishing results. Shocked by the amount of immoral obedience, both doctors wrote articles exploring the reasoning for the test subjects unorthodox manners. In The Perils of Obedience by Milgram and The Stanford Prison Experiment by Zimbardo, the professionals reflect their thoughts in a logical manner. Milgram s experiment consisted of a teacher, learner, andRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesand permission should be obta ined from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturersRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesbuilt-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore